5 Instructional Strategies in Reading
Learning to read develops complex skills that involve multiple modes of literacy and more than one mode of comprehension. Reading requires students to understand the author’s point of view, assess the message, and use various modes of literacy to make meaning of what they are reading. For a deep and authentic learning experience, students need to have access to a variety of texts, including topic-based and interest-based texts. To help students develop these skills, educators should provide students with a variety of genres and reading levels.
There are several advantages to structured literacy instruction. It is systematic and cumulative, and it follows the logical order of language. Educators need to teach students the most basic concepts first and progress methodically to more complex ones. Each step must build on the prior concepts learned. Explicit teaching content helps educators avoid sloppy and incorrect practices while promoting student engagement and continuous interaction with the teacher. Structured literacy is an effective teaching strategy for all students, especially those who need more attention to comprehension.
It is a proven teaching strategy that allows students to learn to decode words explicitly and systematically. The approach has proven to be more effective for all students, especially those with dyslexia. By using a structured approach, teachers can maximize their students’ reading abilities and avoid unnecessary struggles. A child’s ability to decode a word depends on the structure of the word. Without a systematic framework, decoding skills are poor, and comprehension is compromised.
Students who learn with structured literacy are exposed to the basic structure of language, including the sound and meaning of letters. The skills they learn can be categorized into different categories, and teachers should provide a variety of examples to demonstrate how to segment words. Structured literacy includes explicit instruction to support comprehension. For example, structured literacy requires students to learn the relationship between word and phrase, as well as the relationship between sentences and clauses.
Another aspect of structured literacy is the study of morphemes. A morpheme is the smallest unit of meaning in language. In this approach, students are introduced to a set of letters representing each phoneme. Once a child can learn to identify one phoneme, they can then begin decoding the words. The process is known as phoneme-grapheme mapping. This approach develops a strong understanding of the phonological structure of a word.
Directed reading thinking activity
The Directed Reading-Thinking Activity is a teaching strategy centered on guiding students through the process of making predictions. The activity requires students to reflect on the content of a reading passage and identify reasons for their predictions. In addition, it provides teachers with a chance to monitor students’ comprehension. Directed reading-thinking activities help students to think critically about the material and improve their understanding of it.
The DRTA can be used in a variety of learning situations and can be adapted for a variety of subjects. This strategy guides students to make predictions about a text and then keep reading to check their predictions. It strengthens critical thinking and reading skills while encouraging students to be active readers. Students can engage in this activity individually, in small groups, or as a class. Regardless of the setting, DRTA encourages students to think critically about a reading text.
During the activity, students can make predictions based on a series of key points within the passage. Then, they can support their predictions with a supporting image. Once they are finished practicing, they can read the chunked sections silently. Once the students have practiced this method, they can try this activity in small groups. This will encourage collaboration and a deeper level of predictions, two skills students need in the 21st century.
The effects of Directed Reading-Thinking Activity have been studied in several studies. Using a quasi-experimental design, researchers were able to examine the impact on reading comprehension and student perceptions. They enrolled 60 second-grade students and divided them into a control group. In the experimental group, students were taught the DRTA strategy while the control group was taught a conventional strategy. The results of this study were analyzed using descriptive statistics such as mean score, median score, and standard deviation.
Visualizing the material
One of the best reading instructional strategies for visual learners is to create an activity where students visualize the text they’re reading. This activity can involve the students folding a piece of paper into four boxes on the front and four on the back. Students label the boxes with numbers from one to eight. When they’re finished, the teacher reads the text aloud to the class without showing any illustrations. Stop eight times to ask students to illustrate what they’re reading. Then, they reread the text with the illustrations shared with the class.
A visualizing exercise can be incorporated into reading lessons every day, either as a whole class or in small groups. For younger students, it’s beneficial to read picture books aloud to them and have them draw what they hear or see. Then, older students can listen to a selection of a novel and create an image or written description of the characters, setting, or theme. A combination of mental image-making and drawings helps students grasp the concept.
A good visualization technique can improve students’ comprehension and help them understand complex texts. For instance, a student can visualize a specific image of a character or topic in a text and fill in any blanks with their own knowledge. This technique can also help them understand tricky figurative language. Hence, teaching students to visualize the material in their minds can be worth the time and effort of direct instruction. This strategy is extremely useful for both new and experienced readers.
In addition to visualizing the material, the student must also visualize the words. This can be done with help from an assistant or a group of volunteers. For example, a student may need to learn spelling strategies before he can master a visual strategy that targets meaning. For example, a native English-speaking kindergartener may need more time to practice visualizing letters and relating them to their sounds. These strategies are both useful and fun for students.
A sounding-out strategy is a common tool used in the early stages of teaching children to read. It focuses on teaching students to isolate words by their sounds. This strategy also works well with word puzzles, as children typically sound out words by looking at the letters. Most adults automatically puzzle over new words, and this strategy helps them learn to read words naturally. However, it is important to model for children to be able to remember it.
Many adults do not use this strategy as an early reading strategy. Many of these adults are guilty of forgetting this strategy, and the sounding-out approach does not always work. Many adults, including those who read for pleasure, will reread a book without analyzing whether they understood it. But how do we ensure that children are able to do this without thinking about their reading comprehension? We can use strategies such as rereading to reinforce the sounding-out strategy.
Using a guided reading basket and a strategy mat are excellent ways to practice sounding out words. You can also practice this technique by presenting hints to the child. By using this strategy, your child will learn to read words more quickly. As the student becomes more proficient, she can begin to solve more words on her own. She can even use her strategy bookmark to refer to it when she needs it.
In addition to sounding-out words, students can also use phonics instruction to help them identify which letters are in a word. The goal of phonics instruction is to teach students to “sound out” words in their heads. This strategy is especially useful with CVC words. Students who have trouble reading can use this strategy by whispering sounds before moving them into their heads. It is also important for struggling readers to use this strategy when they are reading unfamiliar words.
Students can learn to make inferences in a variety of ways, including predicting events, characters, or themes in books. This abstract skill is challenging to master because it requires students to use their schema to analyze a piece of writing and to figure out what the author is NOT saying. It requires plenty of practice and many reading curriculums will spiral through this skill several times. While it is not a difficult skill to learn, it can be especially tricky to teach, as it can be difficult to convey the concept effectively without pictures and real-life objects.
To help students learn how to make inferences, teachers must start by teaching students to combine their reading with prior knowledge. For example, a student must know that a bathing suit means swimming, or that a seasick person is on a boat. By making inferences, students can better understand textual clues and apply these to the story. They can also develop these skills through a variety of other reading strategies.
Another way to help students learn how to make inferences is through graphic thought organizers. A creative graphic thought organizer can show the ladder in a tree, while another can show the supporting statements. This strategy is particularly useful when students are struggling to make inferences based on text. When students can visualize their own inferences, they will feel more confident applying them to different situations. That is why teachers should provide ample time for students to share their ideas.
Another way to teach inferences is to use mystery bags. In the mystery bag, the learner can be given clues about what they are doing or where they are going. For example, a mystery bag could contain ingredients for a peanut butter and jelly sandwich. Students can compare and contrast their inferences. The mystery bag can also be used to introduce students to a variety of other types of inferences.